plato guardian education
Plato's beliefs on education, however, are difficult to discern because of the intricacies of the dialogue. Next, he teaches about thought through his discussion of the philosopher-kings' education and dialectics. As soon as Socrates allows fineries, however, the city quickly becomes rife with potential trouble. Physical training is an important aspect because an educated Guardian would be of no use if he were unable to protect and serve. Thus, he makes the guardians' revised education implausibly lengthy (it does not culminate until the age of fifty at which point most people are close to life's end) and ends the discussion with the idea that only children under the age of ten will be allowed in the city with the philosopher-kings (541a). Socrates' pedagogical approach with the interlocutors corresponds closely with his vision of the education of the philosopher-kings--an overlap which suggests that the allegory of the cave is representative of true Socratic education. Socrates says. Plato considered bravery to be one of the most important attributes a guardian should possess. Although Socrates found it necessary to drag Glaucon out of the cave and into the light using images, Socrates still prefers that his students do not simply accept the truth, but come to it on their own. By subtly directing the discussion through questions, Socrates allows the ignorant prisoners to unchain themselves and realize the truth. From what Socrates says here, it seems as if the natures with which children are born matter less than their education; anyone can be a philosopher with the right training.1 Also, unlike the first education, the purpose of the philosopher-kings' education is to eventually teach children how to distinguish right from wrong by showing them the whole truth. Consequently, it was their occupation to enact the decisions made by the ruling class. Finally, Socrates arrives at knowledge of what is. Socrates skillfully explains until Glaucon grasps the concept and is able to make an account of it for himself. He holds that students must not be allowed free reign with dialectics at too young an age, because, instead of using their newfound knowledge for the good of the city, they might be tempted to forsake the city's laws and conventions in favor of more base pursuits (538a-c). The primary object of education, Plato says, is to turn the eye, which the soul already possesses, to the light. Plato View of Education. Socrates says. Although Socrates says potential guardians must have a certain disposition, the impressionability of the ideal nature suggests that they must only be bodily suited to the physical aspects of the job since they will be instilled with the other necessary qualities through education. Hades should be praised so that the warriors will not fear death; children should grow up fearing slavery more than death (386c). The philosopher-kings' education aims beyond the attainment of the four virtues and includes the greatest and most beneficial study: that of "the good" (505a). There are certain aspects such as censorship and a changing God that I felt a certain way about before I read this book, but now feel differently. Despite Socrates' use of "reverse psychology" to make Glaucon realize the truth on his own terms, Glaucon does not find the philosopher's life ideal, so Socrates switches tactics. If the appetitive component is too strong, we would have an unhealthy soul with too much greed and lust. After all, shadows (or noble lies) capture part of the truth, whether it is physical or moral, and can be used to educate people about what lies beyond the cave, either outside the city's laws or in life after death. But if poets and guardians are to imitate (which they doubtlessly will since Socrates' whole discussion of the importance of good tales relies on the idea that children will imitate good examples), they must copy those virtues which they have been taught since childhood (courage, moderation, holiness, freedom) (395c). Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through t… Plato felt that one was put into a social group by their own development of their rational intellects. The topic of education first arises in the book when Glaucon opposes the plain lifestyle required in Socrates' city. Rather, only music that would inspire the brave and music that would inspire wisdom and peaceful action on the part of the Guardians. Through his refutation of the opinions of Glaucon, Adeimantus, Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus, Socrates battles the city's conventions. Education Essay Writing, Education Research Papers, Term Papers, Dissertation Help. If a person is able to imitate different characters then he might be able to take on the characteristics of the character. The first account of education, however, is not included in the dialogue without purpose. He says that good guardians must not be prisoners nor can they be philosophers who selfishly stay outside of the cave. Moreover, Socratic education is not just meant to educate civic rulers--it is meant to educate men to be excellent rulers of themselves. In fact, in ancient Greece music was part of basic education and even religious or civic gatherings. Guardian. . Furthermore, he exploits the power of playful images and poetry to convey his ideas. The answer, Plato believed, was to rely upon the value of a good education. Although never exposed to injustice personally, he will recognize injustice by its foreignness. Because a solely gymnastic education causes savagery and a purely musical education causes softness, the two must be balanced. Socrates says that careful crafting of tales is important because they are the most effective method of educating guardians' souls. Now that Glaucon eagerly wants to know everything about the good, Socrates tries to explain the divided line (510-511). Remember that Socrates had to be persuaded to stay in the Piraeus and talk with Adeimantus and Polemarchus (327-328). Plato’s feelings on primary education would make a just Guardian and would truly bring out his divine nature. Socrates says of calculation, "It leads the soul powerfully upward and compels it to discuss numbers themselves" (525d). and find homework help for other Plato's Republic questions at eNotes Socrates' style of questioning/answering and refuting arguments also gains meaning after his discussion of the philosopher's return to the cave and dialectics. Certain rhythms and modes would convey a specific mood or feeling. Socrates' sharing in the educational experience is an effective pedagogical method that benefits both the student and the teacher. I will discuss the guardians as one section since the Rulers are picked after the primary education of the Guardians is completed. (Remember, he operated his own school at Athens!) From this, it seems that education does not make men a certain way, as in the first account. Socrates never resolves the tension between the importance of nature and education for the development of philosopher-kings, which makes it difficult to understand which is most important. Socrates provides numerous cues that signal that the city and the education are neither ideal, nor meant to be actively instituted. The guardians that are undergoing this rigorous form of education do not study mathematics for practical purposes. Socrates identifies this subject by describing it as the lowly business of distinguishing the one, the two, and the three—the number. Despite slightly relinquishing control, Socrates still subtly guides Glaucon and Adeimantus toward the truth by making the luxurious city and its guardians' education ludicrous. Socrates says that those fit for a guardian's education must by nature be "philosophic, spirited, swift, and strong" (376 c). Changes sometimes have to be made to literature and music in order to produce a noble warrior. Finally, Glaucon seems to be able to distinguish between what is true and false for himself. The Greek word for number is arithmos, and it’s the root of our word arithmetic. Physical training must be carefully regulated for the moment the guardian is a child until he is an adult. As an adult you should feel free to read what you want since you have already been shaped. He lets them be founders, thereby allowing them a vested interest in the discussion. Socrates claims, "A young thing can't judge what is hidden sense and what is not; but what he takes into his opinions at that age has a tendency to become hard to eradicate and unchangeable" (378d). Glaucon protests the unfairness of forcing the liberated philosophers to go back into the cave (519d), but Socrates insists that, although it is unappealing, philosophers will serve the state because they are indebted for their own enlightenment, love knowledge, and accept that the good of the city is more important than their own happiness. But let us look at a feverish city, too" (372e). They are chosen from among the ranks of the auxiliaries, and are also known as philosopher-kings. This is why poets who use this form will not be allowed to tell their tales to the Guardians. He says that philosopher-kings must have a certain nature, but then says the capacity to see the good and be educated is in all. 3 The Plato’s suggestion for censorship of art and literature is extremely critical But once he focuses on what is, he will be happier than ever before and will never want to return to the cave (516e-c). Once they see the good itself, they must be compelled, each in his turn, to use it as a pattern for ordering city, private men, and themselves for the rest of their lives. This would tie in with literature because stories are conveyed. Guardians are created when the country begins to be too small for it’s inhabitants. Since the philosopher-kings are still to be warriors, their education must still be useful for warlike men. Socrates' way of explaining the good is characteristic of his pedagogical method. By presenting them with numerous different points of view, he teaches them to look beyond convention and their long-held convictions, and be open to new, foreign ideas. Instead, his eyes would adjust slowly. Socrates then spontaneously progresses to the cave analogy in order to explain the process of coming to know the good by means of education. Socrates suggests that the guardians be controlled through an education designed to make them like "noble puppies" that are fierce with enemies and gentle with familiars (375a). Good tales must also foster courage, moderation, and justice. Glaucon wants this illusive, erotic knowledge that Socrates dangles before him, but just as his interest is sparked, Socrates tells him it is too complicated, which arouses Glaucon even more (506e). Socrates says, "Now, the true city is in my opinion the one we just described-a healthy city, as it were. As the sun allows our eyes to use their existing capacity to see, the good allows our existing intellect to know. He says that these poets' tales include bad lies, which further unrealistic images of the gods and heroes (377e). Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through the pedagogical method he uses with Glaucon and Adeimantus. Tales cannot depict fighting among the gods and, further, children must actively be told that citizens have never been angry with one another (378c). Plato simply states here that dirges, laments, modes of sorrow or softness, and any musical setting implying drunkenness, effeminacy, and inactivity are to be kept from the Guardians in training. Using the discussion of justice, Socrates formulates an active model of the educational process and guides his students through the levels of intelligibility and knowledge. Plato felt that most tales were unsatisfactory because of their content and must be supervised. They need to be gentle when they are dealing with the citizens of the state. Socrates, recognizing that Glaucon is still attached to lavishness, goes along with his request to make the city more luxurious. Furthermore, gods cannot be said to punish (unless it is for the punished person's benefit), change shape/form, or lie. Ideal Characteristics of Plato’s Guardians The characterisitics of the ideal guardian is summarized in those words by Socrates in the second book of the Republic : “[H]e who is to be a really good and noble guardian of the State will require to unite in himself philosophy and spirit and swiftness and strength. Glaucon says, "Apollo, what a demonic excessâ¦don't leave even the slightest thing aside" (509c). Socrates describes a cave in which humans are chained from birth facing a wall. Moreover, children are expected to accept whatever they are told with little free-thought. After teaching imagination, Socrates moves onto trust by introducing an education that requires rulers to blindly trust the educative tales they are told. The three forms of storytelling are dramatic, tragedy, and comedy. Socrates, however, still recognizes the danger of the full truth. Early in the dialogue, Socrates suggests that the idea of justice should be sought first in a large city, for it is there that it will be most visible, and then in individuals (369a). Also, because the dialogue is meant to be a defense of philosophy and an apology of Socrates, the education of real philosophers seems more in tune with the theme of the book than the education of "noble-puppy" guardians. In this article we discover what Plato has to say about music and its impact on humans. Having completed the discussion of music, Socrates moves onto gymnastic education. The Guardian must also maintain sobriety so the he will not need a Guardian himself. But above all, they must love hard work. Basically it was developed around ones wisdom. "The same education which makes a man a good guardian will make a woman a good guardian; for their original nature is the same." The most explicit account of education arises after Glaucon questions the moderate and plain lifestyle required in Socrates' just city "of speech" (369a). Books have been taken out of libraries and classrooms that contain explicit material and teach prejudice and evil. Tales must also show bravery in the face of danger (390d. In the ideal state, matters are overseen by the guardian class – change is to be avoided (perfection having already been obtained), and slaves, and craftsmen and merchants are to know their place. I… The third principle of literature is the stories of heroes. The notion that all private interests be abolished within the guardian class would also leave guardians with little drive to … .” Rhythm and mode would now have to be censored just as the poem itself had to. The first account of education can be read in light of this ideal. By asserting that the highest virtues are acquired through education and are a matter of refined taste, Socrates combats Glaucon's love for base pleasures. Seen as incapable of determining right and wrong for themselves, children were to be guarded from the truth when it was not wholly good. Plato on education. This time, Glaucon takes the cue and says, "Just like a sculptor, Socrates, you have produced ruling men who are wholly fair" (540c). He says. (Remember, he operated his own school at Athens!) Using the power of images, Socrates evokes an analogy of the obscure good and the familiar sun. Like the divided line, the dialogue has different meanings and purposes on different levels, making it dangerous to believe everything Socrates says. Stories of heroes that are to be told should only consist of heroes who hold the same values and characteristics, which the Guardians should have. When a man tries by discussion--by means of argument without the use of any of the sense--to attain to each thing itself that which is and doesn't give up before he grasps by intellection itself that which is good itself, he comes to the very end of the intelligible realm just as that other man was then at the end of the visible (532b). He shows Glaucon what would happen if a prisoner was unchained and allowed to leave the cave and see reality. It is the most beautiful educational treatise ever written.” Plato sought in the Republic to encourage an education that orients the human soul towards the good by teaching them about the nature of justice. Shouldn’t the Politeia; Latin: De Republica) is a Socratic dialogue, authored by Plato around 375 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man. The good is beyond perceived reality and is hard to see, but once the good is understood, it is clear that it "is the cause of all that is right and fair in everything," and must be possessed and understood by prudent rulers (517c). Socrates next reveals why philosophical education is often resisted and how educational enlightenment is progressive. Modes that express bravery, endurance, peacefulness, and success would be considered meaningful. Perhaps he emphasizes the importance of a certain nature to add an aura of prestige to education. Socrates' ludicrous examples, different images, and persistent questioning are clearly intended to help guide his pupils upward through the levels of reality to the highest, truest knowledge of what is. After addressing the appropriate content of tales, Socrates discusses whether simple or imitative narrative should be used by poets and guardians. Women of the guardian class are indeed to be given the same education as men, but they will become the “companions and colleagues” of their guardian husbands. We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but his plan for the elementary education of guardians for the ideal state appears in Book III. Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. The answer, Plato believed, was to rely upon the value of a good education. In order for there to be a just state, there must be a balance between the different types of people, namely; reason dominated, spirit dominated and appetite dominated people. Glaucon reacts as if he has stepped out of the cave for the first time and does not know what to make of his bright surroundings. Rhythm and harmony touch the soul directly, so if children are surrounded by tales of goodness and never exposed to bad tales, like "noble puppies" they will learn to love what they know (goodness and justice) and hate what they do not know (injustice) (401d-e). We fall in love with learning and philosophy both in the abstract sense that Socrates tried to instill in his pupils and also, in the more pragmatic sense, we are students of political philosophy by reading the Republic. If a God were perfect and good then he would not be affected by outside influences and would be able to maintain his perfection. Through this powerful image of the cave, Socrates shows Glaucon the good and suggests how it is to be obtained. Furthermore, if he did try to return to the cave and help the other prisoners, they would hate him, calling him corrupt and delusional because their reality is still limited to the shadows in the cave (517a).
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